Basic: reading pinyin

 

The hànyǔ pīnyīn, is the phonetic system for transcribing Mandarin Chinese into Latin alphabet. Chinese characters do not content any phonetic information, therefore this system allows to spell the words, being a essential tool for new mandarin students.

 

Reading pinyin

Usually, each Chinese character stands for a syllable. This syllable can be divided into: a initial consonant or shēng mǔ (声母); a simple vowel or dān yùn mǔ (单韵母); and a composed vowel or fù yùn mǔ (复韵母). Being the possible combination:

  • Initial consonant + simple vowel
  • Initial consonant + composed vowel
  • Composed vowel

 

Initial consonant or shēng mǔ (声母)

b [b] bà bà
p [bʻ] píng guǒ  
m [m] mā mā  
f [fʻ] fǎ guó  
d [t] dì dì
t [tʻ] tóu fā
n [n] nǐ hǎo
l [l] lǎo shī
g [k] gē gē
k [kʻ] kē xué
h [x] hē shuǐ
j [Tɕ] jī qì
q [tɕʻ] qī zǐ
x [ɕ] xī bān yá
z [ts] zài jiàn
c [tsʻ] cōng míng
s [s] sī kǎo
zh [tʂ] zhī dào
ch [tʂʻ] chī fàn
sh [ʂʻ] shì qíng
r [ʐ] rén men
y [j] yī shēng
w [w] wǒ men

 

Simple vowel or dān yùn mǔ (单韵母)

a [a]
o [o]  
e [e] è  
i [i]  
u [u]  
ü [ü] nǚ hái

 

Composed vowel or fù yùn mǔ (复韵母)

ai [ai] ài qíng
ei [ei] hēi sè
ao [au] ào mén
ou [ou] ōu zhōu
an [an] ān quán
en [ən] ēn yuàn
in [in] yīn wéi
ang [aŋ] máng lù
eng [əŋ] péng yǒu
ong [uŋ] dōng tiān
ing [iŋ] yīng guó
ia [ia] jiā rén
iao [iau] jiāo shì
ian [iæn] jiǎn féi
iang [iaŋ] qiáng bì
ie [ie] jiě jiě
iong [yŋ] qióng rén
iu (iou) [iou] jiǔ ba
ua [ua] huā yuán
uo [uo] guó jiā
uai [uai] huài rén
ui (uei) [uei] huí jiā
uan [uan] suān là
uang [uaŋ] shuāng shù
un (uen) [uən] lùn wén
üe [yüe] lüè duó  
ün [yn] xún zhǎo