Basic: Chinese tones

 

Pinyin uses a diacritics system to indicates the four (plus neutral) tones of the Mandarin Chinese. To be fluent in the understanding an pronunciation of this five tones is essential to the language.

First tone (ɑ̄) ā ō ē ī ū ǖ
Second tone (ɑ́) á ó é í ú ǘ  
Third tone (ɑ̌) ǎ ǒ ě ǐ ǔ ǚ
Fourth tone (ɑ̀) à ò è ì ù 
Fifth tone (ɑ) a o e i u ü